Originally, the Sac and Fox were governed by a clan system. Clans which continue
are: Fish, Ocean, Thunder, Bear, Fox, Bear Potato, Deer, Beaver, Snow and Wolf.
This traditional manner of selecting chiefs and governing themselves was
forcibly replaced by United States appointees and an constitution patterned
after the American form.
Sac and Fox governments, traditional and new, have been challenged with threats to the sovereignty of the Nation over lands, resources, and the people's welfare. In 1832 Black Hawk defended the peoples' right to their homeland. Keokuk complied with U.S. demands to move "west of the Missouri Territory". In 1869 the Mokohoko Band led by Chief Pashepaho fought to remain in Kansas until the late 1880's.
Recent tribal leadership has defended the right of the Sac and Fox Nation to tax businesses, issue license plates, protect sovereign control over lands, resources, and govern according to Sac and Fox modern law. Each generation is presented with new challenges to insure the best interest of future generations.